Censorship on Twitter Using Bots? How #YaMeCanse Was Knocked Off Twitter Trending Topics

UPDATE BELOW, AND ALSO THIS POST WITH MORE INFO.

In late September of this year, 43 students in the Mexican state of Guerrero went missing. In an attempt to prevent students from disrupting a political event for his wife, the mayor of Iguala ordered local police to stop and detain the students. This set in motion a series of events that resulted in several murdered students and 43 missing students. People later learned the missing students were handed over to a local cartel and were subsequently killed and burned until no traces of their bodies were left behind. This announcement was made during a press conference by Mexico’s Attorney General, Jesús Murillo Karam where at the end of the conference, tired and exasperated, said “Ya me cansé.” I’ve had enough.

#YaMeCanse

Mexicans took to social media and responded with “We’re tired too…” Of the violence. Of the injustice. Of the impunity. Of the corruption. The #YaMeCanse hashtag became the rallying cry for discourse online and protests all over Mexico. The hashtag has been on Twitter trending topics almost since Murillo Karam’s press conference. Yesterday, the hashtag suddenly disappeared from the list even though usage had not waned.

Usage of #YaMeCanse

 

This sudden disappearance of such a popular hashtag raised some eyebrows. Determining trending topics is a little more complicated than simply calculating the number of mentions of a hashtag. Twitter has an algorithm that determines trending topics based on several factors. According to Twitter, one of the rules against usage of trending topics is “Repeatedly Tweeting the same topic/hashtag without adding value to the conversation in an attempt to get the topic trending or trending higher.” It is very likely that the overwhelming spamming of the #YaMeCanse caused Twitter’s algorithms to treat the hashtag as spam and proceded to remove it from the trending list.

As reported in sopitas.com, an army of bots had been RT and tweeting the #YaMeCanse hashtag for several days.

“Who says that online censorship and repression does not exist online? A storm of bots tries to disappear #YaMeCanse”

Spam Tweets

Another analysis by Lo Que Sigue shows the difference between connected and disconnected tweets symbolizing real people versus bots.

#YaMeCanse2

Not to be easily dissuaded, the Mexican twitterverse quickly came up with a simple solution: #YaMeCanse2, which is currently trending. An added cleverness to adding the number ‘2’ is that it forces people to ask “What happened to regular #YaMeCanse? Where’s #YaMeCanse1?” which leads people to find out about the attack. It’s a sort of the Barbra Streissand effect where in an attempt to censor one hashtag, not only do people evade the censorship, but in doing so call attention to the attempt at censorship.

It’s quite possible that this is not a coordinated attack on the hashtag by some entity. It could be just regular bots hijacking a popular hashtag. And it is very tempting to attribute to this “attack” to the government of Mexico. I would not be surprised at all if it was, and I’d be willing to bet that the Mexican government is behind this (it wouldn’t be the first time), but I would like to find definitive proof. The people behind Lo Que Sigue working to start an Indiegogo campaign to try and find the origin of these bots. Perhaps we don’t have to wait around for this to get funded and we can crowdsource/collaborate to try and see if tracing the origin of the bots is possible. I would welcome any ideas on how to do this.

UPDATE:

So Trending Topics are more complicated than they seem. It’s hard to tell whether bots had any role in dropping the hashtag from the trending list. It seems that Twitter is actually looking for “bursts” of tweets, and how fast these tweets appear ( ∂Tw/∂t?). It is entirely possible that volume of tweets remained stable but the “burstiness” was gone. I don’t know. Twitter’s algorithms are very private. Even if bots played no part in dropping the hashtag, the possibility of that happening might still exist. After all, riding hashtags to promote unrelated content is shunned by Twitter. Whether they can detect that algorithmically, I’m not sure, but I wouldn’t be surprised. If they can detect that, then it’s entirely possible to spam a hashtag using bots. Perhaps the only way to find out is to actually measure the volume and speed of the bots. Doing this, it turns out, is very hard.

 

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